Overweight, Alcohol, and Tobacco Consumption Are Associated with Hypertension among Police and Military Personnel: A Meta-Analysis


  • Firman Pardosi Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret
  • Setyo Sri Rahardjo Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sebelas Maret http://orcid.org/0000-0002-8736-5963
  • Yulia Lanti Retno Dewi Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sebelas Maret


Background: Increased blood pressure for a long time can increase the risk of kidney failure, coronary heart disease, brain damage, and other diseases. In 2019, it is estimated that hypertension is experienced by 1.13 billion people in the world with most (two thirds) living in low and middle income countries. Other study also shows that the police and military are at risk of developing hypertension due to a number of factors such as low know-ledge about healthy and nutritious food, co-workers who are smokers, and consuming alcohol. This study aimed to analyze the risk factors for hypertension in the police and military in the world using meta analysis.
Subjects and Method: This was a meta-analysis and systematic review. The articles used were obtained from Google Scholar, Springer Link, ProQuest, and Science Direct databases. Selected articles published from 2000 to 2020. Keywords to search for articles are as follows: hypertension police personnel and military, or hypertension police personnel and military. The articles studied are 3 full text articles with cross sectional study designs and 1 full text articles with case control study design. Articles are collected using PRISMA diagrams, and analyzed using the Review Manager application 5.3.
Results: Overweight (aOR= 1.42; 95% CI = 1.01 to 2.00; p= 0.04), alcohol consumption (aOR= 1.55; 95% CI= 1.12 to 2.12; p= 0.007), cigarette consumption (aOR= 1.45 ; 95% CI= 1.06 to 1.97; p= 0.020) is a risk factor for hypertension in the police and military.
Conclusion: Overweight, alcohol consumption, and cigarette consumption, are risk factors for hypertension in police and military personnel.

Keywords: overweight, alcohol, smoking, hypertension, meta analysis

Firman Pardosi. Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta 57126, Central Java. Email: pardosi.fp@gmail.com.Mobile: +6285261423865.

Journal of Epidemiology and Public Health (2020), 05(01): 88-96


Aghi C, Herbert B (2012). Menurunkan tekanan darah (Reducing blood pressure). Jakarta: PT. Buana Ilmu Populer Kelompok Gramedia.

Elvivin E, Lestari H, Ibrahim K (2016). Analisis faktor risiko kebiasaan mengkonsumsi garam, alkohol, kebiasaan merokok dan minum kopi terhadap kejadian hipertensi pada nelayan Suku Bajo Di PulauTasipi Kabupaten Muna Barat Tahun 2015 (Risk factor analysis of salt, alcohol, habitual habits of smoking and drinking coffee against the occurrence of hypertension in Bajo Fishermen on Tasipi Island, West Muna Regency 2015). Jurnal Ilmiah Mahasiswa Kesehatan Masyarakat, 1(3): 1

Farahat FM, Saleem FA (2007). Communitybased screening for prehypertension among military active duty personnel. Bull High Inst Public Health, 37(1): 112-123. https://doi.org/10.21608/jhiph.2007.22018

Ganesh KS, Naresh AGV, Bammigatti C (2014). Prevalence and risk factors of hypertension among male police personnel in urbanPuducherry, India. Kathmandu Univ Med. 12(48):242

Ministry of Health (2013). Pedoman teknis penemuan dan tatalaksana hipertensi (Technical guidelines for the discovery and management of hypertension). Retrieved from: http://www.p2ptm.kemkes.go.id/site/dokumen-ptm/pedoman-teknis-penemuan-dan-tatalaksana-hipertensi/

Ministry of Health (2014). Infodatin Hipertensi. Jakarta. Retrieved from: https://www.kemkes.go.id/resources/download/pusdatin/infodatin/infodatinhipertensi.pdf

Mallik D, Mukhopadhyay DK, Kumar P, Sinhababu A (2014). Hypertension, Prehypertension and normotension among police personnel in a district of West Bengal, India. J Assoc Physicians India, 62(11): 12

Mundan V, Muiva M, Kimani S (2013). Phy siological, Behavioral, and Dietary Characteristics Associated with Hypertension among Kenyan Defence Forces. ISRN Prev. Med: 1

Oktavia F, Martini S (2016). Besar risiko kejadian hipertensi berdasarkan faktor perilaku pada Tentara Nasional Indonesia (TNI) (High risk of occurrence of hypertension based on behavioral factors in the Indonesian National Army (TNI)). Media Kesehatan Masyarakat Indonesia, 12(3): 127

Rastogi P (2003). Diet and High Blood Pressure. South Asian Journal of Preventive Cardiology. http://www.sajpc.org/vol9/vol9_2/highprevalenceofcoronaryheartdisease.html

Saad A, Shehri A, Afifi R, Tashkandi M (2017). Prevalence and correlates of pre hypertension and hypertension results II: A screening plan in a selected military community in central Saudi Arabia. Car diol Angiol, 6(2): 121. https://doi.org/10.9734/ca/2017/32180.

Saputra O, Anam K (2016). Gaya hidup sebagaifaktor risiko hipertensi pada masyarakat pesisir pantai (Lifestyle as a risk factor for hypertension in Coastal Communities). Majority, 5(3): 118

Tesfaye T (2017). Assessment of the prevalence of hypertension and associated factors among Ethiopian Federal Police Officers Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A Community Based Cross-Sectional Study. Ec Cardiology, 26: 278

WHO (2019). Hypertension. Retrieved from: https://www.who.int/newsroom/factsheets/detail/hypertension.

Widharto (2007). Bahaya hipertensi. Jakarta: Sunda Kelapa Nusantara.




How to Cite

Pardosi, F., Rahardjo, S. S., & Dewi, Y. L. R. (2020). Overweight, Alcohol, and Tobacco Consumption Are Associated with Hypertension among Police and Military Personnel: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Epidemiology and Public Health, 5(1), 88–96. Retrieved from https://www.jepublichealth.com/index.php/jepublichealth/article/view/247




Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 > >>